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by granting them the right to be compensated when others use their work in certain ways. Specific
rights are granted to the creators of creative work in the U.S. Copyright Act (title 17, U.S. Code).
Generally, if you are not a copyright holder for a particular work, as determined by the law, you must
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the Copyright Act for certain academic uses. Permission is never required for certain other actions, such
as reading or borrowing original literary works or photographs from a library collection. The rights
granted by the Copyright Act are intended to benefit “authors” of “original works of authorship,”
including literary, dramatic, musical, architectural, cartographic, choreographic, pantomimic, pictorial,
graphic, sculptural and audiovisual creations. Nearly all creative work, including books, magazines,
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unpublished materials, such as analysts’ and consultants’ reports; and non-print materials, including
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files, sculptures, and other artistic works – are protected by copyright. Under current copyright law, the
author does not have to include the copyright notice © in order to have a copyright. Under the current
law, the moment a work is written down, recorded or otherwise becomes “tangible,” it is protected by
copyright law. The absence of a copyright notice on a creative work does not mean that the work is not
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their creations and the ability to benefit, monetarily and otherwise, from the use of their work. The
owner of a copyright has exclusive rights to do and to authorize third parties to do any of the following:
1. reproduce the copyrighted work in copies or phonorecords;
2. prepare derivative works based upon the copyrighted work;
3. distribute copies or phonorecords of the copyrighted work to the public by sale or other transfer of
ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending;
4. in the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion pictures
and other audiovisual works, perform the copyrighted work publicly; and
5. in the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and pictorial, graphic,
or sculptural works, including the individual images of a motion picture or other audiovisual work,
display the copyrighted work publicly.
Copyrights are not always owned by the author or creator of the work. For example, authors often agree
to assign their copyright to the publisher of their work. Even the author of a work will have to obtain
permissions from the copyright holder if they do not retain some rights to reproduce, distribute,
perform, display or prepare derivative works as a part of their agreement with the publisher.
Copyright law protects the expression of an idea; it does not protect ideas, data or facts.
In the U.S., the general rule of copyright duration for a work created on or after January 1, 1978 is the
author’s life plus 70 years after the author’s death. This is often referred to as “life-plus-70”. Works
created by companies or other types of organizations generally have a copyright term of 95 years.
The Academy of Business Research has the exclusive right upon acceptance of a manuscript to publish the article in both print and digital forms. This is inclusive of online archiving and hosts such as EBSCO and Pro Quest. Authors are free to self-archive.
All articles go through double blind, peer review process. Prior to reviewers being sent any articles, any potential conflicts of interest are avoided. Each journal editor has full discretion to accept or reject the article on the basis of the double blind peer reviews. The copy of the ABR review form is found at the bottom of this page.
There are no article submissions or publishing fees. ABR is a 501 C-3 whose revenue is derived form membership fees and conference registration fees. Journals are available by subscription on Ebsco and SSRN. Complimentary editions of various ABR journals are available at every conference.
Guidelines for Editors
Authors need to take responsibility in owning what portion of the article they’ve contributed and in giving enough credit to the contributors. All authors are expected to be ethical about authorship.
Academy of Business Research and its editors, reviewers and readers assume that submitted papers are honest work that does not involve fraud and plagiarism.
Guidelines for Authors
The Academy of Business Research has adopted and is accountable for the policies and procedures of COPE. This is inclusive of plagiarism checks and retraction policy. Please refer here to find out more about the policies.
Academy of Business Research recommends that editors follow these guidelines when editing journal articles.
Editors need to make sure that they are maintaining the confidentiality of the authors work. Except with the reviewers, the confidential information should not be disclosed to anyone without the consent from the authors.
Editors are expected to evaluate papers from ethical point of view. For example, what kind of data are being used and how are they being presented. Is privacy being compromised in the paper?
If editors feel that there may be a violation of laws be it at the location of the research or for publication, editors are required to obtain clarification and any documents or permissions that authors acquired for the research.
Significance of the study
Among the articles being evaluated, the acceptance of an article should be backed by the significance and contribution of the study in its field.
Validity of the study
Editors need to verify the validity of the study and check whether or not the study clearly provides evidence. All articles are run through turnitin software and only articles scoring less than 30% will be eligible for inclusion in the journals
Guidelines for Peer Reviewers
It is very important that peer review maintain privacy and do not reveal any information about the paper.
Peer reviewers are only expected to review articles on their field of expertise.
Peer reviewers should not be influenced by factors such as nationality, origin of the manuscript, gender, etc.
Peer review should respect the work done by the author in manuscript. Comments may not be harsh or undermining in nature.
The Academy of Business Research is a 501 C-3 whose physical address is PO Box 678 Gulfport, MS 39507. For inquiries please email ABR at firstname.lastname@example.org
Policies on Conflicts of Interest
Policies on Conflicts of Interest
All journal articles are double blind peer reviewed by reviewers that are absent of any conflict of interest including familial relationships and co-workers. All potential article are submitted to Turnitin to verify authenticity.
Journal editors should consider retracting a publication if:
They have clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of misconduct (e.g. data
fabrication) or honest error (e.g. miscalculation or experimental error)
The findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross referencing, permission or justification (i.e. cases of redundant publication)
It constitutes plagiarism (as defined by validity of study)
It reports unethical research Journal editors should consider issuing an expression of concern
They receive inconclusive evidence of research or publication misconduct by the authors
There is evidence that the findings are unreliable but the authors’ institution will not investigate the
case they believe that an investigation into alleged misconduct related to the publication either has not
been, or would not be, fair and impartial or conclusive
An investigation is underway but a judgement will not be available for a considerable time Journal
editors should consider issuing a correction
A small portion of an otherwise reliable publication proves to be misleading (especially because of
The author / contributor list is incorrect (i.e. a deserving author has been omitted or somebody who
does not meet authorship criteria has been included) Retractions are not usually appropriate
A change of authorship is required but there is no reason to doubt the validity of the findings
Notices of retraction should:
Be linked to the retracted article wherever possible (i.e. in all electronic versions)
Clearly identify the retracted article (e.g. by including the title and authors in the retraction heading)
Be clearly identified as a retraction (i.e. distinct from other types of correction or comment)
Be published promptly to minimize harmful effects from misleading publications
Note: The Academy of Business Research has adopted and is accountable for the policies and procedures of COPE
Copy of Review Form
The following is a copy of a review form that is sent out for a double blind peer review.